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Zusammenfassung

And on top of all this, he is founder and chairman of the Medienliga Berlin-Brandenburg a media football league , in which 32 teams — from Flux FM to Vice Magazine, Der Tagesspiegel to X-Filme — play football in two leagues, fighting for promotion or against relegation, for the championship and the cup. A word, Mr. Houllebecq, B. Vian, T. Mann, R.

Contact: j. That is, by the way, more than the digital industry and the start-ups. That says it all, really. Mick Jagger as a film producer and Helmut Newton as set photographer. What would you do without a computer? I would enjoy being offline, relax and realise that life works without a computer as well.

Which moment changed everything? When I returned from Spain and landed in Berlin, more or less by chance. Which problem would you like to solve? That in Berlin — despite the economic boom — every third child is still living below the poverty line. A penguin wearing a sombrero comes into a bar and says: Can you change your whole life in a day?

Your favourite swear word? Vollpfosten German for something like a total spoon. How can someone impress you? By not taking themselves too seriously and not succumbing to every hype, but questioning things — especially regarding spreading opinions in digital media. What would you like to be better at?


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Being more patient and cooking. I can hack the basics, though. What would you cook for us if we came to visit you at home? Because I will have run out of basics, I would take you out for the in my opinion best sushi in Berlin made by the probably only Turkish sushi-chef of the city. What are you most afraid of? That our thinking is too black and white and we might forget that beside the digital world there is an analogue world on which our cognitive capabilities, for example, are based. When was the last time you tried something new and what was it?

At the beginning of this month, I went to Ireland to learn to surf. Straight away, but somewhere warmer… However, Ireland really is a beautiful Island. What should no one know about you? Which question should we have asked you? He has spent almost his whole life taking pictures, for all the greats, but shows no signs of growing tired of them. Because looking means sensing, remembering, collecting impressions and feelings. From all his travels — which were pretty many in three decades — Renner wrote personal lines on innumerable postcards to his wife and, later on, his sons.

And now the sender himself has put them together in a personal book that takes us on a journey around the world that makes us yearn for wide open spaces and undiscovered places. And brings us really close to the photographer, traveller and friend Ivo von Renner. In over post cards, the seemingly insurmountable distance between home and wanderlust becomes smaller. And the pictures, at the same time, document the world and Renner himself. Well alright, here it is! On Monday evening, we were sitting together at our MMW Christmas party, looking back on the past year and thinking about which things we wanted to tackle next year and how to go about it, when — push message by push message — news about the events at Breitscheidplatz reached us.

We stopped in our tracks, contacted our family and friends, spoke about our feelings. Different than before. Calmer, humbler.

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Everyone kept their answer to themselves. Together, we want to contribute to supporting love, understanding, responsibility and constructive cooperation, to eliminating borders in our minds and to making humanity move closer together again. We are sad and our thoughts are with all victims of violence and terror everywhere. At Christmas, we celebrate love — to our dearest but also to our neighbours. We wish for the strength, for you and for ourselves, to resist anger and rejection and to hold on to love.

Berlin is lively, colourful, crazy. Berlin parties, Berlin laughs, Berlin dances.

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Even now, especially now. Not to face reality with the bass-line of ignorance, not to suppress or to desperately demonstrate. Just for our own good and sometimes, for the good of others. Our friends from the Prince Charles are giving a party that perfectly combines zest and sense: refuge. And give, by the by, refuge. Because all of the money spent by the party crowd that evening goes straight to those who invest it best.

As we know from our charity concert within the framework of the Haitian Heroes photo exhibition, the Prince Charles has always been a good place to give beneficence a colourful face. The range of opinions between the public, media, and taboos] In W. Heitmeyer Ed. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Suhrkamp.

Hickethier, K.

Lesson 84: Past tense 4 – Vergangenheit 4

Stuttgart, Germany: Metzler. Hippler, F. Berlin, Germany: Deutsche Filmherstellungs- und -Verwertungsgesellschaft. Hormuth, S. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 11 , IBM Corporation. Imhoff, R. Ongoing victim suffering increases prejudice: The case of Secondary anti-Semitism. Psychological Science, 20 12 , Collective regret versus collective guilt: Different emotional reactions to historical atrocities.

European Journal of Social Psychology, 42 , When the past is far from dead: How ongoing consequences of genocides committed by the ingroup impact collective guilt. The Journal of Social Issues, 69 1 , Iyer, A. Emotion in inter-group relations. European Review of Social Psychology, 19 , Why individuals protest the perceived transgressions of their country: The role of anger, shame, and guilt. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33 , Johns, M.

Ashamed to be an American? The role of identification in predicting vicarious shame for anti-Arab prejudice after 9— Self and Identity, 4 , Kadelbach, P. Potsdam, Germany: teamWorx. Kempf, W. Forschungsmethoden der Psychologie: Zwischen naturwissenschaftlichem Experiment und sozialwissenschaftlicher Hermeneutik.

Quantity and quality] Vol. Klein, O. Does group identification facilitate or prevent collective guilt about past misdeeds? Resolving the paradox. British Journal of Social Psychology, 50 , Knopp, G. Holokaust [Documentary film]. Wilke Ed. Der Holocaust im Fernsehen. The competition of the media about remembrance].

Wende Ed. Heidelberg, Germany: Synchron. Kopf-Beck : Der Holocaust im Film: Dokumentation des Untersuchungsmaterials einer quasi-experimentellen Studie [The Holocaust in films: Documentation of the stimuli of a quasi-experiemental study].

Kopf-Beck, J. Engaging with German history: Reactions of the third post-war generation to cinematic representations of the Holocaust. Krings, A. Die Macht der Bilder. Zur Bedeutung der historischen Fotografien des Holocaust in der politischen Bildungsarbeit [The power of images: On the significance of historical photographies of the Holocaust in political education]. Berlin, Germany: Lit.

Lanzmann, C. Shoah [Documentary film]. Paris, France: Historia. Liebman Ed. Leach, C. Group virtue: The importance of morality vs. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93 , Lewis, H. Shame and guilt in neurosis. Lickel, B. The evocation of moral emotions in intergroup contexts: The distinction between collective guilt and collective shame. Vicarious shame and guilt. Loose, I. Die Ambivalenz des Authentischen. Juden, Holocaust und Antisemitismus im deutschen Film nach [The ambivalence of the authentic: Jews, Holocaust, and anti-Semitism in German films after ].

Medaon, 4 , MacDonald, G. Why does social exclusion hurt? The relationship between social and physical pain. Psychological Bulletin, , Mackie, D. Intergroup emotions: Explaining offensive action tendencies in an intergroup context. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79 , MacKinnon, D. A comparison of methods to test mediation and other intervening variable effects. Psychological Methods, 7 , Maes, J. Gerechtigkeit als innerdeutsches Problem: Haltungen zur Nation als Kovariate [Justice as inner German problem: Attitudes towards the nation as covariate].

Mayring, P. Qualitative content analysis. Forum Qualitative Social Research, 1 , Article Neuendorf, K. The content analysis guidebook. Niedenthal, P. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67 , Norddeutscher Rundfunk.

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Hamburg, Germany: Norddeutscher Rundfunk. Peetz, J. Crimes of the past: Defensive temporal distancing in the face of past in-group wrongdoing. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36 , Preacher, K. Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior Research Methods, 40 , Rees, J. Nie wieder: Group-based emotions for in-group wrongdoing affect attitudes toward unrelated minorities. Political Psychology, 34 3 , Riffe, D. Analyzing media messages.

Using quantitative content analysis in research. Roccas, S. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91 , Smith, E. Social identity and social emotions: Toward new conceptualizations of prejudice. Hamilton Eds. Stiglegger, M. Tajfel, H. The social identity theory of intergroup behavior. Worchel Eds. Tangney, J. Shame and guilt. Turner, J. Rediscovering the social group: A self-categorization theory. Young, J. Zwischen Geschichte und Erinnerung. Welzer Ed. Geschichte, Erinnerung, Tradierung [The social memory: History, remembrance, transmission] pp. Hamburg, Germany: Hamburger Edition.

Zick, A. Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte, 31 , Standard deviations are put in parentheses. The regression weights for the film variables indicate the direct effects, or c'-path coefficients, of the films on perceived collective shame; c Dummy-coded indicator variable reference: male ; c z-standardized. The regression weights for the film variables indicate a-path coefficients, holding constant all other variables; b Dummy-coded indicator variable reference: male ; c z-standardized.

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Emotional Reactions to Cinematic Portrayals of the Holocaust. Journal of Social and Political Psychology, , Vol. Accepted: Published VoR : Specification of Defensiveness [ TOP ] In order to reduce self-relevant threat and immediately associated emotions of shame Brown et al. Description of the Coding Manual [ TOP ] The film clips used in this study were chosen because they were broadcasted countrywide and illustrate different ways of portraying the Holocaust.

Effects of Films on Defense Strategies [ TOP ] The results of the content analysis of all six film clips were used to develop hypotheses on the effects of the single excerpts on the different film-induced defense strategies. Film-induced distancing from victims [ TOP ] We assumed a low level of film-induced distancing from the Jewish victim side , if the film excerpt contained a high degree of individualization CAV3 and humanization CAV4 of victims Bandura, , and a low degree of victimization of the Jews CAV5 or dramatic portrayals of Jewish suffering CAV2; see also Brink, , and devaluation through the non-contextualized use of anti-Semitic stereotypes CAV1 in historical film material see Loose, Film-induced blaming the victims [ TOP ] Blaming the victims of an injustice represents one strategy in the process of moral disengagement Bandura, Film-induced closeness to perpetrators [ TOP ] Analogous to the victim side, there are many ways in which closeness to the perpetrator side can be constructed in films.

Film-induced rejection of the relevance of the Holocaust [ TOP ] The rejection of the relevance of the Holocaust for contemporary Germany represents a form of distancing from the events. Increased victim blaming. Reduced distancing from victims; Increased closeness to perpetrators. Reduced distancing from victims; Increased rejection of the relevance. Reduced distancing from victims.

Reduced rejection of the relevance. Effects of Defense Strategies on Film-Induced Group-Based Shame [ TOP ] Distancing strategies are expressed in the escape from or avoidance of situations which might evoke the threat- and shame-inducing event Brown et al. Film-induced distancing from victims [ TOP ] We defined distancing from the victims as the rejection of compassion, sympathy and understanding for Jewish Holocaust victims.

Film-induced blaming the victims [ TOP ] Claiming that victims are themselves to blame for their persecution is a strategy in the process of moral disengagement Bandura, Film-induced closeness to perpetrators [ TOP ] Analogous to the victim side, closeness to the perpetrators is operationalized as the compassion, sympathy and understanding for the German side. Film-induced rejection of the relevance of the Holocaust [ TOP ] The demand to close the books on history, often voiced in Germany Heyder et al. Method [ TOP ] Data Analysis Strategy [ TOP ] In the main study, we tested if the film excerpts have indirect effects on film-induced group-based shame through the mediator variables film-induced distancing from victims , film-induced closeness to perpetrators , film-induced blaming the victims , and film-induced rejection of the relevance of the Holocaust.

Sample [ TOP ] According to our theoretical framework, all participants eligible for this study should hold German citizenship and should identify with being German at least to a minimum extent Mackie et al. Results [ TOP ] The starting point for testing the mediator hypotheses was modeling the total effect of the film conditions on the extent of perceived collective shame see Table A2 in the Appendix. Discussion [ TOP ] The interplay between historical injustice and group-based emotions, and the ways of coping with such emotions, are of a complex nature.

The Perpetrator Side [ TOP ] In contrast to these rather distal factors concerning the victims, that is the out-group , the more proximal factors portraying the perpetrator in-group and perceived relevance had a stronger impact on the development of film-induced group-based shame. Limitations [ TOP ] The most important contribution of this study, the use of specific real-life stimuli, simultaneously represents its most important limitation. Notes [ TOP ] i Still, this film does not represent a neutral reference category; thus we gave preference to effect coding of the film variables instead of dummy coding.

Citations: M. Murat Ardag, J. Christopher Cohrs, Torsten J. Remember me. CAV1: Stereotypes. Such as the equalization of Jews with rats. CAV2 a : Jewish suffering. Percentage of scenes in which Jews suffered in a certain way for examples through deportation. CAV3: Individualization. Portrayal of Jews as individuals to distinguish them from a uniform collective. CAV4: Humanization. Portrayal of Jews as human beings with associated traits such as loving fathers.

CAV5: Exclusive victimization. Portrayal of Jews in a victim role only to distinguish them from a role for example as German citizen. CAV6: Occurrence of Germans c. Percentage of scenes in which German characters, such as politicians or citizens, were portrayed. CAV7: Role of Germans. Summary of the portrayed role of Germans. CAV8: Individualization. The Heimat movement of the Weimar Republic has also been viewed in this manner. Its influence was largely thanks to the subject of Heimatkunde local history being anchored in school curricula and hence a part of civic education, albeit in a more innocuous form.

A key representative of the conservative Heimat movement, the educator Eduard Spranger, emphasized that Heimat was something that had to be acquired: A given birthplace only becomes a homeland once you have lived your way into it. This is why it is possible to create a homeland for yourself far away from the place you were born. The value of Heimat and region was elevated accordingly, since these were thought to contain important elements of a shared national or popular culture peculiar to an imagined community. Leading figures in the heritage societies and homeland associations may have curried favor with the regime and been confirmed Nazis, but they always retained a certain scope of maneuver, which after could be interpreted as a sign of having kept away from politics and ideology.


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Moreover, there was no uniform strategy on the part of the Nazi Party of how to deal with these mostly bourgeois societies and associations. Added to this was the competition between different organizations, typical of the Nazi period. This situation gave the Heimat movement a certain latitude, since the Nazi umbrella organizations were not always able to penetrate the existing groups and bring them into line ideologically.

Separate initiatives also developed in individual administrative districts, or Gauen. In Saxony, for example, Gauleiter Martin Mutschmann founded the Heimatwerk Sachsen Homeland Organization of Saxony in which aimed to centralize all regional cultural efforts. With the collapse of Nazi Germany in , the Heimat movements were remarkably quick to localize their structures once again. The s and s have received the most attention from scholars in more recent contemporary history. About 12 to 14 million ethnic Germans were forced to leave their places of residence and start a new life elsewhere.

Locals had to deal with new-arrivals, and everyone had to come to terms with the changes in their living environment. Thus, Heimat figured prominently in postwar social discourses. The so-called Heimatvertriebene, ethnic Germans expelled from their former homeland, sought a place in their respective postwar societies in Germany East and West, some of them hoping to one day return to territories lost in the war.

The established population was faced with the task of dealing with a new situation and possibly reinventing their own identity. Alongside existing and newly formed local cultural organizations came the ones established by migrants after the end of the war. While the BHE attracted the attention of scholars early on, expellee societies and associations or institutions taking up their cause at the regional and local level were only addressed much later.

Though the narrative of the rapid and successful integration of refugees and expellees fostered by the politics of the s and s has recently been the subject of scrutiny, [70 ] two things have yet to be explored in detail: How both migrants and locals coped with this situation still needs to be investigated in more detail.

The wealth of sociological research [74 ] dedicated to the topics of homeland, foreignness, refugees and expellees from a theoretical as well as an empirical perspective [75 ] would be a useful resource for future historians in this field. The government in East Berlin initially rejected the concept of Heimat as the haven of an ineradicable and romanticizing petty bourgeoisie. Instead, a socialist concept of Heimat was invented, underscoring the role of the individual in the collective and his responsibility to the world around him.

Heimat was now no longer the preserve of the bourgeoisie but belonged to the workers , who shaped their environment collectively according to the principles of socialism, thus ensuring the rootedness of these principles.


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The focus of local identity-building was to be the overall socialist state [79 ] and the notion of internationalism. It was also necessary to overcome bourgeois-capitalist property relations, since these were thought to ultimately lead to an instrumentalization of Heimat. All of this was thought to contrast the approach to Heimat in the Federal Republic. Founded in , it only had a limited say, however, in the agenda of its affiliated associations and hence had little influence on their practical work and activities.

Thus, a varied network of regional and local cultural associations developed alongside organizations that were more or less free to pursue their activities, depending on political directives from Berlin and provided they did not engage in direct opposition to the regime. The hugely successful West German Heimatfilm of the s and s has been given special attention in cultural-historical research. More recent investigations offer a somewhat more nuanced picture. The Heimatfilm addressed fundamental social issues in its own specific way, whether modernization, displacement and migration or the urban-rural divide.

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It used the imagery of familiar Heimat iconography to convey impressions of a stable order that appealed to aesthetic sensibilities and was capable of holding its own in the modern era. Though the notion of Heimat used here clearly recalls the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and hence carries conservative connotations, the Heimat of the Heimatfilm was not divorced from current events, but integrated despite its conservative bent elements of modernity, mobility and technology in the spirit of reconciliation as understood back then.

And yet there is no denying that the discovery of local surroundings, landscapes, architecture and nature in their specific meaning to individuals is an important step towards establishing a local identity. Confino emphasizes that the images used were interchangeable in terms of their form, aesthetic and motifs, and could hence be regarded as universal signs and symbols representing the notion of Heimat. This can be viewed as an outgrowth of the Heimatkunst movement that emerged in late Imperial Germany. Regarded by art historians as conservative and traditional and scarcely acknowledged by conventional historians, being mentioned in passing at best, the movement was in fact considerably more complex, as Jennifer Jenkins points out.

The literature shows that the s inaugurated a new phase in the history of Heimat. The anti-nuclear-power movement, discussions of identity in the s, the debate on globalization [93 ] as well as German unification all relied at some point or another on the concepts of Heimat and regionalism or local identity politics, regardless of whether this happened in a rural or urban setting.

Historians of the nature conservation and environmental movements have traced these back to the Heimat movement of the German Empire and discovered numerous continuities. One specialized field of recent historical research is colonial history. Prompted partly by the cultural turn and partly by post-colonial studies, this new field of scholarship has reexamined the question of the self-understanding of colonizers. Migration history and global history have also acted as catalysts more generally.

During the German Empire, colonizers and colonial societies endeavored to integrate the colonies into a national narrative. This was done with the help of the contemporary discourse on Heimat. The same applied to colonial enthusiasts after , who imagined a better Germany, as it were, in the former German colonies. Investigations into the phenomenon of Heimat seldom extend beyond German borders. Even Austria and Switzerland are given short shrift, whereas transnational approaches are lacking entirely with the exception of colonial history.

The visual history of Heimat has likewise received scant attention from scholars. A divergent leftist or liberal concept of Heimat and a focus on gender-specific issues are marginal features in the historical literature. The German notion of Heimat is perceived as a uniquely German phenomenon, distinctly different from other concepts of homeland throughout the world.