The s financial market boom led to the transformation of the once family- owned industrial capitalism into a new form of oligarchic family capitalism characterized by a few families - some of them of long-time entrepreneurial tradition as Agnelli, Pirelli, Orlando and Falk, only to mention some - controlling pyramidal holding groups made of a large number of subsidiaries Amatori and Colli Separation between management and control, resulting in the split between the role of the owner and that of the entrepreneur, who is substituted by a delegated professional, may result in a separation between ethics and personal attachment, and 5 Interesting is the American literature that analysed paternalism with respect to race, class, and gender.
A Canadian study accounted for the gender ideology of male dominance mirrored from community and family relations, which was the basis of the paternalistic attitude towards women factory employees from the s onward. Male managers exchanged welfare benefits for allegiance and a sense of debt, as a strategy to avoid unionization Sangster After company welfare tradition got lost, along with the development of structured industrial relations and the growth of public welfare schemes, in the last few years it has been brought back into the public debate.
European institutions advocated for the development of CSR principles, and pushed Member States to implement public policies that encourage business companies to behave responsibly and pursue sustainable practices Albareda, Lozano and Ysa Much of the fortune of company-provided welfare benefits and services is due to the extent to which the national regulation allows for tax breaks. Norms that grant special terms and money savings for both employers and employees are an extraordinary push for companies to commit to the implementation of benefits in addition to salaries. In Italy, fiscal arrangements are established in the TUIR Testo unico delle imposte sui redditi, which provides a variety of benefits with tax breaks, as for instance healthcare support, cafeterias and meal vouchers, transport services and day- cares, summer camps and scholarships.
An interesting issue raised by Hoven concerns the link between occupational benefits and strict income policies on the side of the employer: welfare benefits can be used to mitigate the effects of wage restrictions or failed pay rises due to, for instance, times of economic recession. The issue is currently extremely relevant, as it also plays a major role in explaining the position of trade unions and other social parties towards the expansion of occupational welfare.
Italian trade unions have a long-time tradition of involvement in social policies, particularly at the local level. A highly innovative approach that saw unions asking employers to contribute to the development of services not only for employees but for the whole citizenry, witnessing their commitment to extend the scope of social bargaining Regalia Nowadays, trade unions undergo conflicting pushes: they have to contrast compensation effects between salaries and contributions, making sure that benefits are not offered in order to avoid pay rises.
On the other hand, benefits attached to contracts can constitute a new way of appealing to and keeping members Hoven Compensation effects between salaries and social contributions and benefits could in principle explain the attitude of social parties towards the introduction of occupational welfare benefits. The empirical analysis: occupational welfare in four Italian companies A growing number of large and often multinational companies in Italy started to set up welfare systems in order to offer benefits and services to their employees.
While some of them were able to set up new bilateral welfare arrangements, others directed their efforts to comprehensive restructuring of pre-existing welfare assets. The interplay of a number of factors, such as legacy and tradition, industrial relations and the strength of the unions determine final outcomes. In addition to that, the areas in which plants are located and the local culture, as well as the initiative of the management and HR strategies are also to be taken into account.
In order to map some of these experiences and to understand the logic of the actors involved, findings from the empirical analysis on four cases - Luxottica, SEA, ATM and KME — are presented. They are all Italian firms but, while Luxottica and KME are private and international companies, SEA and ATM are publicly owned enterprises characterized by a strong legacy of bilateral welfare initiatives. Luxottica is one of the first and most debated experiences of occupational welfare in Italy, built from scratch starting in by a joint employer-union effort.
SEA and ATM share a solid welfare tradition generated by company-level agreements and a strong welfare legacy. KME witnesses instead the attempted process of setting up new benefits to revive its ancient paternalistic tradition. The empirical analysis has been undertaken through the study of both public and non-public documents, such as company-level collective agreements and internal information provided by the companies, as well as with the completion of semi-structured interviews with stakeholders and key informants - company management and trade union representatives — in the years and Luxottica The creation of the welfare system has been triggered by the recession.
With the economic downturn, Luxottica, along with many other Italian companies, was forced to put workers on the Wage Guarantee Fund Cassa Integrazione Guadagni for four days, and Del Vecchio thought it was necessary to give back to them what they lost. In February , the parties signed the agreement that created a joint committee in charge of meeting periodically to study the introduction of a welfare system for the over white and blue-collar workers: the welfare system has been tailored upon the needs of the blue-collar population in the different plants and it has been extended to cover also white-collars, while middle and high management are almost always excluded.
The joint labour-management board is responsible for studying and selecting benefits financed with cost savings, calculated through quality indicators that were estimated back in between 2. The agreement also focuses on flexibility in working hours and shifts, setting new rules to meet company requirements for continued production in the plants for enhancing performance. These elements were favoured by a peculiar attachment between company and local community, and kindled by organizational restructuring as a trigger for change. While the relatively young age of the company did not allow for the formation of a welfare legacy and strong labour identity, the bond between owner and territory has been perpetuated over the years with a late paternalistic-like approach.
A relatively weak bargaining position by the unions led to the benevolent acceptance of the management proposal of a welfare programme, as they could only choose whether to be part of it, or to watch from the outside the development of a project that was about to be undertaken either way. Why did the company bring in the unions, then?
There are two different, although probably complementary, explanations. The bilateral agreement upon indicators is crucial in establishing reciprocal commitment to reaching prospective goals for the year. It would have been much harder, and much less creditable, to force the acceptance of new organizational arrangements through unilateral decisions. KME KME is a company with a strong legacy of industrial paternalism that tried to revive its past after the arrival of Enzo Manes at the helm of the company. The company town built by the Orlando family — owners of what was called at that time S.
After the great expansion of the first half of the century, the company underwent a loss of competitiveness in the last decades, which ultimately resulted in the decision of leaving the plant and moving the production to the Fornaci di Barga site, founded in and structured similarly to the company town in Campo Tizzoro. From the s onward, also due to expansion of public provision and increased mobility, most social services and structures were gradually left aside: when a broader choice of services became easily available, territorial proximity started losing its crucial dimension.
The event that ultimately triggered the welfare restructuring effort has been the advent of Enzo Manes at the helm of the company in the early s. Running parallel to his philanthropic commitment, Manes - having also observed the deep local attachment to S. The unstable balance resulting from a tradition of conflicting industrial relations, exacerbated by the consequences of the present economic downturn, led to a stalemate in the implementation of new initiatives.
One last observation on KME concerns the status of its welfare legacy. They share a similar history of bilateral welfare initiatives, and both reached in more recent years new welfare governance assets, bilaterally agreed and jointly participated. Some of them were set up by SEA, while most of them were jointly decided upon through agreements and delivered by either the company or the two CRALs Circolo Ricreativo Aziendale Lavoratori , recreational centres for social aggregation and post-work activities.
Following agreements instituted a number of services, such as part- time work for mothers, leaves for medical examinations, scholarships, summer camps and reimbursements for mobility expenses delivered directly by the company. In order to achieve a better distribution of responsibilities, the new association provides all benefits and services in kind, and especially the ones related to recreational, training and learning activities, while SEA will continue to administer initiatives related to the areas of work-life balance and social assistance e.
Company and labour representatives came together in the governance of the new association, that merges together the two CRALs and is in charge of managing all existing welfare initiatives as well as of deciding upon the introduction of new ones. The Healthcare Fund becomes part of the new asset, as it is also presided by a joint committee, but for fiscal reasons continues to be an independent entity, although associated with the new institution.
Even in the occurrence of a hypothetical change at the helm of the company, welfare financing and provision could not be changed unless both parties agreed to. The legacy of bilateral welfare played a crucial role in making this possible, as most of the benefits transferred under the new association are the ones that management and unions bilaterally agreed since the s onward plus a smaller number of one-sided company benefits that will now become common assets, following a path-dependent trajectory with change ultimately brought forward by a disruptive event. The new asset works properly only to the extent that all parties equally commit to it, which is much more likely now that one party watches over the other rather than before, when each of them had their own separate area to administer unions on the CRALs and SEA on unilateral initiatives.
In the same year the trade union Sindacato Tranvieri Urbani organized the first colonia, a holiday centre for workers, and in the Cassa di Soccorso e Malattia acquired the Servizio Colonie and started managing the organization. In the Cassa di Soccorso even built in Milano the Ospedale dei Tranvieri, a fully functioning hospital later donated to the municipality. Gestione Tempo Libero, which inherited the management of a number of activities such as healthcare services, the organization of leisure and health-related stays e. In ATM and the unions decided for the creation of a joint association that merged together Ge.
The agreement instituting the Fondazione ATM, signed in December , finally led to its creation in An initial stalemate within the BoD was solved only with the election of new members and the agreement on the creation of the Ufficio di Direzione, a sub-committee made up of president and vice-president the first appointed by workers and the second chosen by the company who have to pre-emptively agree and formulate common decisions. Besides the institution of the Fondazione ATM, the company management set up a number of benefits and services that go from social assistance to work-life balance.
Particularly boosted by the arrival four years ago of Elio Catania as president of the company, ATM management started a process of revitalizing and restructuring of all previous bilateral welfare arrangements, which stratified one over the other in the years before. On top of that, Catania advocated for the separate development of a group of initiatives under exclusive administration of the company. The years witnessed major organizational effort, with the harmonization and complete integration of social services functions with more traditional HR prerogatives as administration and organizational tools, internal communication and training programmes.
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Since , the latest initiatives have focused on diversity management, the effective monitoring system for fruition and satisfaction levels in order to customise and distribute homogeneously assets within the whole workforce, and the update of existing benefits to new needs. A fist and simpler answer is that foundation and company benefits are catered for different subjects. The Fondazione has a much larger catching area, covering present and former employees along with their families, while the company provides a different range of services catered internally and exclusively for the workforce.
Plus, there are a number of benefits, such as for instance work-life balance and flexibility arrangements, than can be provided only directly by the HR management. While the foundation aims at achieving generalized social betterment for all possible beneficiaries through the set up of different types of services, the HR management is committed to offer solutions to specific problems as a precise company strategy.
Legacy played an important role with regards to two aspects. Secondly, long- time tradition built a mostly positive climate of industrial relations that allowed Fondazione ATM and HR management to cooperate.
ATM witnesses the coexistence of two separate but communicating systems. Conclusions: interests, ideas and institutions Political economists have extensively wondered, for any given set of economic arrangements, whose interests prevailed, which nonmarket institutions underpin changes, and what is the creative power of ideas in shaping human interaction Hall ; Kaelberer ; Horowitz and Heo What are the factors that ultimately cause occupational welfare systems creation or restructuring?
This sentiment, often resulting from old paternalistic- like practices, influences in turn industrial relations in terms of unions influence. Old paternalistic traditions, when generating emotional attachment and conciliating attitude on the side of the workforce - and to some extent of the whole local community - play a major role in providing a fertile field in terms of culture and ideas. The cases analysed have been also characterized by different modes of action, ranging from the unilateral initiative of the management to the implementation of a governance system shared with the unions, which are relevant with respect to the long-term development and the very survival of welfare systems over time: the institution of independent and jointly governed organisms - as in the cases of SEA and ATM - has been motivated by the idea that welfare provision, once in place, would be much harder to dismantle without the consent of both parties.
It will be now necessary, in order to achieve a more comprehensive and systematic understanding of occupational welfare benefits in Italy, to move in two directions. First of all, it is important to test the mechanisms identified here through the study of a larger and more heterogeneous — with respect to firm size, geographical location and sector - sample of companies.
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Secondly, as highlighted in the initial discussion, broader redistributive effects among the population and the relation between occupational schemes and public responses should be also thoroughly investigated. Amatori, F. Armingeon, K. Benenati, E. Bertuccelli, L. Colombo, S. Dahlberg, L. Del Baldo, M. Esping-Andersen, G.
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Ferrera M. Ferrera, M. Zeitlin e D. Trubeck, eds. Ghezzi, C. La statua nela polvere. Le lotte alla Marzotto, Ediesse, Roma. Greve, B. Hall, P. Heymann J. Hiilamo, H. As all research with a cross-sectional approach, this study did not permit establishing causality relations between variables Podsakoff et al. Further studies, using longitudinal design, should examine the causal relationship between off-TAJD, workload, emotional dissonance and supervisory coaching as determinants, and WFC and WFE as consequences.
Another limitation is the questionnaire online administration procedure. The use of Internet represents the opportunity of having a large group of individuals and lower costs associated with collecting data. At the same time, it is a limitation Kraut et al. Furthermore, extraneous or temporary factors could influence responses.
In particular, as for the relationship between off-TAJD and WFC, the moderating role of resources such as job autonomy and transformational leadership could be investigated. A further study limitation is the absence of objective data, including the number of emails and phone calls received during off-work time. This kind of data could be detected better in studies within specific working contexts. The present study, considering a heterogeneous sample with different job occupations, organizations and sectors, intended to observe the relationships among variables in a general and cross way.
In the future, more specific studies could focus on the specificity and distinctiveness of particular working contexts, also considering the influence of the organizational culture Schein, Finally, future studies could integrate the quantitative research method with qualitative ones, in order to understand better the meaning of off-TAJD in employee opinions, what mechanisms can amplify its influence on the rest of life, and what processes of perception and meaning construction around these topics men and women at work apply, taking into account both the organizational culture and national culture.
At the same time, the study highlighted how, in some cases, the use of technology is also associated with work-family enrichment. Furthermore, this concerns men for whom the work role represents a central aspect of identity, especially in some cultural contexts. In line with previous work Derks et al.
work life balance Archivi - Fondazione Marco Vigorelli
In cases where the use of technology during off-work time is not strictly indispensable, it needs to be regulated or reduced, or even avoided as has already been done in some cases. Moreover, it is important to consider that the inability to disengage from work during leisure time may interfere with opportunities for adequate recovery Derks and Bakker, , with potential negative consequences for well-being Meijman and Mulder, ; Sonnentag and Fritz, and work-family balance itself van Hooff et al.
However, it is important to underline that organizational culture, expected behavior and leadership style, and other job characteristics, are highly influential on the work-family interface Wajcman et al. In this process, the role of leadership is crucial Ghislieri and Gatti, both in terms of what is stated and of behavior truly put in place. CG wrote the introduction and designed the study. CG and LC developed the method and collected the data, wrote the manuscript and received substantial input from co-authors.
CC supervised the research team and contributed to the introduction and discussion sections of the manuscript. MM and FE contributed to methods and performed data analysis. All authors contributed to the conclusion and practical implications section of the manuscript, and approved the final version of the manuscript for submission. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Front Psychol v. Front Psychol. Published online Jun Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Cortese, ti. This article was submitted to Organizational Psychology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Psychology. Received Feb 24; Accepted Jun 9. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice.
No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background: The relationship between technology-assisted supplemental work and well-being outcomes is a recent issue in scientific literature.
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Keywords: work-family conflict, work-family enrichment, technology-assisted supplemental work, workload, emotional dissonance, supervisory coaching. New Technologies and Supplemental Work Smartphones and tablets are the newest communication tools, which have a relevant role in work dynamics today Rennecker and Godwin, , becoming a part of everyday working life Derks et al.
Work-Family Conflict and Enrichment According to previously introduced references and in line with the boundary theory, permeable boundaries increase the spillover from work to the private domain Ashforth et al. In this study, considering the research previously mentioned, we included off-TAJD in the category of job demands and formulated the following main study hypotheses: simple. Gender Differences As mentioned in the introduction, the topic of work-family interface is deeply associated with studies about gender differences Carr, Materials and Methods Ethics Statement This study involved human beings through the administration of a self-report questionnaire.
Samples and Procedures The study involved a convenience sample of Italian workers who filled in an on-line self-report questionnaire. Among the participants, were male Open in a separate window. Correlations for the Male group below the diagonal; correlations for the Female group above the diagonal. Discussion The study intended to understand better the relation between the request, perceived by workers, to complete supplemental work activities by means of technological devices and work-family interface in the work to family direction.
Limitations and Future Studies As all research with a cross-sectional approach, this study did not permit establishing causality relations between variables Podsakoff et al. Conflict of Interest Statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Acknowledgments The authors would like to thank Roy Howse for the language revision.
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