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Batschia canescens Michx. NatureServe Explorer. Retrieved CRC Press. Wildflowers of Tennessee. Highland Rim Press. University of Iowa Press. Runkel, Dean M. Roosa Field Manual of Michigan Flora illustrated ed. University of Michigan Press. Government Printing Office. That map also shows the plant as non-native. Bidens alba is considered native to parts of the United States.

If that plant is considered a separate species, then Bidens pilosa is a non-native species. If Bidens alba is rolled into Bidens pilosa , then Bidens pilosa will need to be considered a native species in those areas where Bidens alba was considered to be native. That logic may be difficult to follow, but that's why I indicate B. On a December, trip to Florida Shepherd's Needles seemed to become the dominant flowering plant along the highways by the time we got as far south as Gainesville.

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It seemed to be everywhere, and is officially considered a weedy or invasive plant in Hawaii, where it is not native. It's also considered weedy and invasive in much of the rest of the tropical world, where it has spread as man's travel has spread. While the plant may probably will! Bidens is a large genus of over species found around the world. There is at least one Bidens species found in each of the United States. The name comes from the latin words for two teeth - in most Bidens species the seeds have two usually barbed awns at the end although Bidens bipinnata usually has more than two.

These barbed awns allow the seeds to stick to hair, fur, and clothing, thus being distributed as far as the carrier may travel. The genus is closely related to Coreopsis , and classification changes will likely occur in the future. Bidens bipinnata is one of the more widely distributed species in the genus, and is more tolerant of drier habitat than many other species in the genus.

It is found in floodplains, fields, roadsides, gardens, and other disturbed areas throughout the eastern United States and in its southern range as far west as Arizona, south into Mexico. It may also be native to eastern Asia, and may be introduced in much of the rest of the world. Southern Harebell is a many-branched, somewhat weak-stemmed plant with many attractive, dangling, small, bell-shaped blue flowers.

Primarily a species of the southeast, it is endangered or extirpated in Maryland. This species is perhaps more widely known as Campanula americana which would place it in the genus containing Southern Harebell C.

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Divaricata and Bluebell Bellflower Campanula rotundifolia. However, the Campanula species have distinctly bell-shaped flowers, which is not the case with Campanulastrum americanum , which has relatively flat flowers. That would have been one of the characteristics that resulted in creation of a new genus for American aka Tall Bellflower - Campanulastrum which has this single species in it.

Campanula rotundifolia is a circumboreal species around the world in the northern hemisphere, and is thus found throughout much of northern North America, including Canada and the northern states in the United States from coast to coast. It is also found in the higher elevations in the Rockies up to 12, feet and Appalachians, so is completely absent only from a few midwestern states, Nevada too dry , and the deep southeastern states.

It is also found in the northern parts of Asia and Europe - it is well-known in Scotland. It grows in a variety of habitats, from dry meadows to moist beaches; the one photographed here on a rocky shore of a cove in Lake Huron, Ontario, Canada. This member of the lily family is one of the mid-spring wildflowers. It has lovely yellow flowers and attractive foliage.

It is found throughout much of the eastern half of the United States, but is listed as an endangered species in Connecticut and New Hampshire. Perfoliate Bellwort is one of two perfoliate - leaf-piercing stems - bellworts. The other is Large-flowered Bellwort, Uvularia grandiflora. Perfoliate Bellwort is a smaller plant, usually with smaller leaves and blossoms, in addition to usually being somewhat lower-growing.

Of the five species in the Uvularia genus all five Bellworts are endemic to eastern North America , there are two with perfoliate leaves, and three with sessile leaves. The species presented here, Uvularia puberula is one of those sessile-leaved Bellworts. Another of the sessile species, Uvularia floridana may overlap with the other species only in the most southern parts of their ranges - southern Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, South Carolina, and northern Florida, the areas where the relatively rare Florida Bellwort is found.

In most of the range of Uvularia puberula it is most likely to be confused with Uvularia sessilifolia , the third and most widely distributed of the sessile-leaved Bellworts. As is implied by the species epithet, U. Some authorities recognize two varieties of Uvularia puberula - a mountain variety var. You'll need to look at the underside of the leaves and details of the styles to differentiate var.

It appears that sometime in the last 10 years Uvularia has been moved into the family Colchicaceae Meadow Saffron as part of the disassembly of Liliaceae. I have chosen to leave them in Liliaceae on USWildflowers. The Bergamots are also known as Bee Balm. This species is lavender with a hairy upper lip on the blossom.

White Bergamot can usually be found in many-flowered clusters of plants inches tall in showy displays starting in late spring or early summer. Many authorities apply the name Basil Beebalm to M. The ranges of M. There are 16 Beebalm Monarda species in the United States. All are native to the lower 48 states; Alaska and Hawaii are the only states without a Monarda species. Texas is the most favored state by Monarda ; 12 of the species are found in that state, 4 of them being found exclusively in Texas.

Monarda didyma , Scarlet Beebalm, is one of the more widely distributed species, being found in most of the northeast quadrant of the United States, including several states west of the Mississippi River, and south to Georgia. Cordylanthus - Bird's Beak or Club Flower - as currently described is a small genus of a dozen or so species found in western North America. Other species previously classifed in Cordylanthus have been moved to Chloropyron and Dicranostegia. The plants of Cordylanthus are hemi-parasitic - they have chlorophyll and thus provide some of their own food, but are also partially parasitic on the roots or shoots of another host plant, obtaining water and minerals from the other plant.

This root parasitism has allowed Cordylanthus to grow in dry areas during drier times when most other annuals have died. Cordylanthus , along with many other parasitic former members of Scrophulariaceae has been moved to Orobanchaceae. Cordylanthus wrightii grows in sandy areas in plains and pine forests of the four corners states in the southwestern United States, and in extreme western Texas.

It blooms from July thru October. Cardamine laciniata, Dentaria laciniata, Dentaria concatenata Cutleaf Toothwort is one of the early spring wildflowers, blooming March through May. Forkleaf Toothwort gets the Forkleaf name because its leaves divide - fork - many times into narrow, untoothed segments. The narrow leaves give it the other common names listed. According to the Wildflower Center, the toothwort common name refers to the tooth-like projections on the underground stems.

Toothworts have previously been classified in the Dentaria genus, but recently, presumably based on DNA testing, have been moved en masse into the Cardamine - bittercress - genus. Many publications still list the plants in Dentaria. The basal leaves are veined but not as prominently as in C. The stem leaves of C. Heterophylla, the species epithet used when this plant was classified in Dentaria , means "different leaves" - either referring to the difference between the stem and basal leaves, or with differences in the appearance of particularly the stem leaves on different plants within the species.

The plant is typically 8 to 16 inches tall.

Wildflowers of the United States

Toothworts grow from a rhizome. One differentiator between C. I do not encourage digging up native plants; populations have been lost by that activity. Hairy Bittercress is a weedy plant of the Mustard family, introduced from Europe and Asia. Frequently found in moist fields, yards, and roadsides, it is one of the earliest bloomers, blooming in January or February.

The foliage is edible. The Rubus genus covers blackberries, dewberries, and raspberries.


Most of these species are not widely distributed or common where they are found. Rubus argutus is one of the more widely distributed species, and is the most commonly found blackberry in the southeastern United States. Rubus flagellaris - Northern Dewberry - is plant with a trailing stem running along the ground for up to 15 feet.

The stem has scattered hooked prickles, and is green when young, brown when older. The fruiting stems rise from the trailing stem, sometimes rising to 4 feet above the ground. The leaves are compound, usually trifoliate, with the three leaflets having a serrated edge. The clusters of purple flowers with nice maple-shaped leaves make this an an attractive plant, found along roadsides and the edges of fertile forests.

It is a shrub that grows thickly, to around 5 feet tall. Endangered or Threatened in Illinois and Indiana. Western Thimbleberry is a native of the western part of the United States, and the north central region as far east as Michigan. There is a disjunct population in Massachusetts; I would suspect that this is a naturalized population rather than indigent. While similar, the easy access location of this plant Kleinschmidt Grade didn't match to any of the known locations of Rubus bartonianus , and the leaves are somewhat different, so that left me with Thimbleberry rather than Bartonberry.

Thimbleberry is also a common name for an eastern Rubus species, Rubus odoratus. Melampodium is a fairly small genus, with about 36 species native to North and South America some introduced in Europe , and 7 species found in North America. Blackfoot Daisy has a wider distribution the widest distribution of any Melapodium in the United States , being found in Texas and 5 other states north and westward. Its range overlaps with M. Melampodium leucanthum grows in open grasslands and desert scrublands, blooming as early as March and as late as November at altitudes up to about 8, feet.

The seed capsule is an enlarged green papery-shelled 'bladder', giving it the 'bladdernut' common name. The Bladderwort family Lentibulariaceae is made up of 3 genera and somewhere around species of carniivorous herbs. Of these, over species are in the genus Utricularia , but fewer than 30 Utricularia species are found in the United States. The Bladdwort genus - Utricularia - capture tiny insects and protozoans in bladders held in the water or saturated soil in which the plants grow. The Utricularia plant osmotically pumps water out of the bladders, creating an effective vacuum. When the prey bumps a trigger hair, the hair mechanically opens the trap door to the bladder, which sucks in some water along with the victim, which will then be dissolved by secretions from the plant.

Utricularia subulata is described as the most widely distributed species in Utricularia , being found in tropical and subtropical regions around the world in both the northern and southern hemispheres - every continent except Antarctica. It is native and found through much of eastern part of the United States, as well as being naturalized non-native in northern California.

It grows in wet, acidic areas such as peat bogs, moist sands, ditches, and wet pine savannas. It is found primarily in the coastal plain regions, but can also be found in the interior as far north as Arkansas and Tennessee. There are 12 species of Blanketflower native to the United States, plus a hybrid cultivar G. At least one species is found in every state, with Gaillardia pulchella being the most widespread of them. This is a popular species for gardening due the the attractive flowers and hardy nature of the plant, being heat- and drought-tolerant.

It is the basis for at least one cultivar. It can flower year round in parts of its range. Native to much of the continential United States, it is an introduced species in Hawaii and Canada. My speculation is that it is likely an introduced plant, perhaps a garden escapee, in Alaska and other parts of its northern range.

There are about a dozen species of Blanketflower native to the United States, plus a hybrid cultivar G. At least one species is found in every state. Most of these are in the western half of the country, and Gaillardia pinnatifida is one of those western species, found in well drained soils of the plains and open forests from Texas north to Kansas and west to Arizona and Nevada.

Gaillardia pinnatifida blooms mostly from May through July, but may be found occasionally as early as March and as late as October. Liatris spicata is found in most of the eastern half of the United States, primarily east of the Mississippi River. The populations that are found west of the Mississippi are likely the result of naturalization from garden escapees. There are two varieties: var.

Most likely to be found flowering in July thru September, it is found in a variety of habitats where it can receive full sun or perhaps a bit of shade. It is tolerant of a range of soil and moisture conditions, but probably most commonly seen on road margins. It is a good addition to native plant gardens. Dicentra is a genus of about 20 species, of which 7 to 11 are found in North America, depending on which authorities you follow and whether you include the highly cultivated Dicentra spectabilis species - which may now be classified as Lamprocapnos spectabilis.

Dicentra eximia is one of 3 or 4 species found in the eastern United States Dicentra formosa may occasionally be found in the wild as a garden escapee, but those populations are unlikely to persist. Since the range of this lovely plant is on cliffs, rock outcrops, and rocky slopes of the Appalachian Mountains from New York south to South Carolina and Georgia, it is possible that it is called Turkey Corn in the northern part of its range. There are reports of disjunct populations in Illinois and Michigan, as well as outside of the Appalachians in other more eastern states.

These are likely to be garden escapees rather than native or long-established naturalized populations since Dicentra eximia is a widely cultivated plant. Dicentra is a genus of about 20 species, of which 7 to 11 are found in North America, depending on which authorities you follow and whether you include the highly cultivated, non-native Dicentra spectabilis species - which may now be classified as Lamprocapnos spectabilis.

Dicentra canadensis is one of 3 or 4 species found in the eastern United States Dicentra formosa - Pacific Bleeding Heart, native to the far western U. Dicentra canadensis Squirrel Corn is found in rich forest coves of eastern North America as far south as northern Georgia in the mountains and perhaps in South Carolina. It blooms in April and May. The plant has yellow underground corms shaped like corn kernels, providing the most commonly used common name of Squirrel Corn.

Sanguinaria is a monotypic genus - Bloodroot is the only species in it. It is one of about 60 - 65 species in the Poppy family Papaveraceae in North America. It is found only in North America. It is most closely related to Eomecon chionantha , a plant native to China which has the common name of Snow Poppy or Dawn Poppy. Sanguinaria canadensis syn. Sanguinaria australis is a beautiful, white, early spring wildflower.

Bloodroot gets its name from the red juice of the root, caused by the compound sanguinarine. While sanguinarine has anti-bacterial and anti-fungal characteristics, it can be toxic, so do not ingest it. While there are a couple of Collinsia - Blue-eyed Mary - species found in the eastern United States, most of the 19 species found in the U. Of those in the west, Collinsia parviflora has the broadest distribution, and is even found in a few eastern states, and throughout much of Canada. Maiden Blue-eyed Mary is Threatened in Michigan.

Collinsia has recently been reclassified, moved from Scrophulariaceae - Figwort family - into Plantaginaceae - Plantain family. While many publications still list the Collinsia genus in Scrophulariaceae - the Figwort family aka Snapdragon family - it has more recently been classified within the Plantains - Plantaginaceae. Most of the Collinsia species are found in the western part of the United States.

Collinsia verna is one of only a couple found in the east, and this is the only one with widespread distribution in the east. This species is native to Tennessee, but the plants photographed here are from a long-naturalized population in Hamilton County, TN. The genus is named for Zacchaeus Collins, an early 19th-century botanist.

Sisyrinchium angustifolium Native. This beautiful member of the Lily family has grass-like winged stems frequently growing in clumps. The lovely blue flowers with yellow centers are at the end of the grass-like stems. Sisyrinchium is a very confusing genus, even among botanists - much more to a rank hobbyist as myself. Based on the following criteria, I'm calling this S. The other species that are possibles in Walker County because they may have purple coloring in the spathes are: S. This plant has narrower stems than most of the Sisyrinchiums I've seen around here, which I believe to be S.

However, the stems in this plant may be too wide for S. It flowers in late spring and early summer. Clintonia borealis is one of four species of Clintonia found in the United States; all are native. Clintona borealis has a yellow-green flower, with usually 3 to 8 of them in the raceme, while Clintona umbellata is white, usually speckled, with 10 to 24 in an umbel. Clintonia umbellata may have narrower leaves than borealis ,and while borealis may have a few hairs on the margins, umbellata has many.

Clintonia is a small genus of only 5 species, 4 of which are native to North America - the other one is Asian. Two of the North American species are western, the other two are more eastern. Clintonia umbellulata is a species primarily of the Appalachian Mountains, found from north Georgia and South Carolina northward to western New York. It is a protected plant in New York and Ohio. The other eastern species is Clintonia borealis , which is found at higher elevations of the Appalachian Mountains in the southern end of its range also north Georgia and South Carolina but is much more widespread and at lower elevations in the northern tier of states.

Virginia Bluebell is a showy, early spring wildflower found through most of the eastern United States. There is much variability in the classification of blueberries and their relatives. Some authorities place them in several different genera, and others place them all in Vaccinium , subdividing it into several sections. Broadly described, Vaccinium includes blueberries, cranberries, and bilberries, and may include as many as species worldwide. There are some other "berry" common names applied to Vaccinium as well, such as deerberry and huckleberry - both of those may also be applied to species in other genera as well.

Since they are similar in appearance and can hybridize, identification can be difficult; fortunately the fine folks at the Wolf Creek Trout Lily Preserve had already identified these. Elliott's Blueberry is a true blueberry in the sense that it is in the Cyanococcus section of Vaccinium ; for those who subscribe to the narrower classifications, it is classified by some as Cyanococcus elliottii. It is primarily a species of the coastal plains of the southeastern United States, growing in bottomlands and on sandy slopes near rivers primarily in coastal plains from Virginia south to Florida and west to Texas.

Finding consistent information on the Buchnera genus has been somewhat difficult. It has been classified in the Scrophulariaceae family Figworts , but as that family is being dismantled, Buchnera most recently has been placed in Orobanchaceae Broomrape family , possibly in part due to its hemiparasitic nature - it gets some nourishment from the roots of other plants no one plant species in particular , but also produces its own nourishment through photosynthesis.

Two Buchnera species are found only in a single state each - Hawaii has the introduced species Buchnera pusilla and Arizona has Buchnera obliqua. There is some dispute as to the identity of a species found in some southeastern states - either Buchnera longifolia or Buchnera floridana , depending on which authority to which you subscribe. Buchnera americana is the most widely distributed North American species in the genus, and is found historically in 24 states.

It now has protected status or is no longer present in at least 7 of them, perhaps in as many as 13 states. It is also very rare in Canada, being found only in a small area of Ontario, where it has Endangered status. Small plant with mostly basal leaves; stem leaves are opposite and quite small. Can form large colonies.

These tiny plants can be easy to miss when blooming single, but even with their 2 to 4 inch height, they're hard to miss with the frequent masses blooming together. Houstonia purpurea is in a group of Houstonia species with multiple flowers in the inflorescence - subgenus Chamisme. My experience with Bluets prior to identifying this plant was with the smaller bluets with solitary flowers on usually terminal pedicels - H.

Two of the three varieties of this species, H. The third variety, var.

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Houstonia purpurea var. Some authorities recognize it as a separate species, Houstonia montana. While the other two varieties can be quite common in parts of their ranges, var. There are about 18 species of Houstonia found in North America, mostly in the east and the south, with Texas having the honor of the most species.

Houstonia serpyllifolia has a relatively narrow distribution, found in the Appalachian Mountains from Pennsylvania perhaps historically only south to extreme northeast Georgia and western South Carolina. This is normally a late spring through early summer blooming species, but these were photographed in a south-facing rock bluff at about ' in September. Not having knowingly encountered this parasitic plant previously, I was surprised to find that it is found in every state in the United States except for Hawaii.

It's also found in much of Canada. It may attach its feeder roots to the roots of many different species of plants. Plants of the genus Orobanche are classified as a noxious weed or similar pest plant in the United States federally and in 9 states specifically, but there is an exception for native species in all cases but two states Massachusetts and Florida , and Florida specifically excludes Orobanche uniflora from its noxious weed list, which leaves only Massachusetts with a negative classification for One-flowered Broomrape.

An explanation of the somewhat unfortunate name is probably appropriate. A "rapum" is a term for a knob of roots, to which Orobanche attach to perform their nefarious parisitic activities. Synonyms: Thalesia uniflora, Aphyllon uniflorum, Orobanche porphyrantha, Orobanche purpurea, Orobanche sedii, Orobanche terrae-novae.

Weakley classifies this plant as Aphyllon uniflorum in his esteemed Flora of the Southern and Mid-Atlantic States , and that change - return; it has bounced between Orobanche and Aphyllon over the years since - that change seems to be generally accepted now based on a paper published in by Adam C. Aesculus flava syn. Aesculus octandra - Yellow Buckeye - is the largest of the 6 or native species of Buckeye found in North America, growing to ' tall there are another half-dozen or so species native to Asia and Europe. It grows in rich forests from lower elevations all the way up to mountain tops within its range - generally the Ohio Valley and southern Appalachians, and is one of the most common trees in the southern Appalachians.

I know it more from young trees, because they are easy to spot in the understory with the palmate leaf structure and showy flowers. I didn't realize until researching for this description that there are two more Buckeyes within the range of Yellow Buckeye that may also have yellow blossoms - Aeculus sylvatica Painted Buckeye and Aesculus glabra - Ohio Buckeye. Some key diagnostics are mentioned with the photos below. Actaea racemosa. Black Cohosh is well-known for medicinal uses; as with many plants with medicinal value, it is also poisonous if not used properly.

The plant is up to about 8 or 10 feet tall, branching with several inflorescences on each plant. It is quite distinctive; I've read it described as "stately," and I agree. Actaea racemosa was originally classified in the Actaea genus by Linnaeus, but Nuttall reclassifed it to Cimicifuga based on the follicles.

However, a study by James A. Compton, Alastair Culham, and Stephen L.

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Jury, using DNA testing and other techniques, has recommended that the genus should be considered part of the Actaea genus. If considered separate, the Actaea genus is Baneberry with four species; the Cimicifuga genus is Bugbane containing six species. At some point I'll change this record on USWildflowers.

It is classified as Endangered in Illinois and Massachusetts. Trautvetteria caroliniensis Native. Some experts consider Trautvetteria caroliniensis - Carolina Bugbane - to be monotypic, although other authorities consider there to be 4 to 6 species in the genus. While some authorities recognize three varities of Trautvetteria caroliniensis - var. There is disagreement even on that classification, and most authorities consider the plants in these three disjunct geographical regions to be the same species, since the differences between the varieties seemed primarily to be geographic.

There also appears to perhaps be an as-yet unnamed new species in the genus which has been found in Claiborne County, Tennessee. Trautvetteria caroliniensis is protected with a Rare classification in Pennsylvania, and is likely extirpated in Indiana. While there are 14 species of Bundleflower Desmanthus in the United States, Desmanthus illinoensis - Prairie Mimosa - has by far the widest distribution. Most species are limited to one or two states each, with a handful in a few more states than that, but Desmanthus illinoensis is found in 29 states in the south and central parts of the United States.

Texas has the prize with the most Desmanthus species, with 10 species found in the state. While there are several species in Sicyos in the United States, Sicyos angulatus is the most widespread. The others are found in only 1 or 2 states Sicyos ampelophyllus in 3 , but Sycyos angulatus is found in 37 states and in Canada as well - clearly another of the few species in the Cucumber Family Cucurbitaceae found in temperate climates. Bur Cucumber is considered a noxious weed in Delaware, Indiana, and Kentucky. This vine grows up to 25' long and may have multiple stems.

It has branched tendrils which allow it to climb over fences and other plants. Burnet means brown - color of the post-mature flower heads. Salad Burnet is one of the common names, because the plant was brough over from Europe as a food - it is used in salads, drinks, and dressings, and is reported to have a cucumber-like flavor. The plant is eaten not only by humans, but also the seeds or foliage are eaten by birds, elk, deer, rodents, hares, and rabbits, and is a valuable food source for these animals.

In spite of being non-native, it does not appear to be aggressive in crowding out native species. This is one of only three species of Diervilla - Bush Honeysuckle. Officially listed as Threatened in Tennessee, Mountain Bush Honeysuckle seems to be even rarer in Alabama, Georgia, and North Carolina, the only other states where it is recorded. It's not that I don't run across them often; it's just that with the number of different species - the USDA lists 93 species in the United States - and with many species looking very similar to others in the genus, it takes a lot of effort and research to narrow it down to a specific species.

This one, for example, I've been working on off and on for nearly a year. I originally thought it was the native Hooked Buttercup Ranunculus recurvatus. But then I noticed the achene beak on the plant I was researching was not nearly long enough to be Hooked Buttercup. My next choice was an introduced species, Smallflower Buttercup Ranunculus parviflorus which has a hooked beak on the achene, but much shorter than in R.

However, R. I finally settled on the native Buttercup Ranunculus abortivus - Littleleaf Buttercup. There may have been other, similar small-flowered Buttercups that I eliminated because they aren't found in northwest Georgia, so if you're trying to identify one outside that area, this might not be your species. But if you call it a Hooked Buttercup, who's going to argue with you? Ranunculus - Buttercup - is a large genus of over species worldwide, and over 75 in North America. There are Ranunculus species in every state in the United States. The genus name comes from the Latin for little frog, since many species prefer wet environments, as do frogs.

Indeed, some Ranunculus are aquatic. Ranunculus glaberrimus is a plant of the western half of the United States and Canada. There are two varieties, var. The Nlakapamuk native Americans rubbed the flower and plant of Ranunculus glaberrimus on their arrows to poison the tips - like many Ranunculus species, this species is poisonous, particularly to livestock, although the poison is rendered harmless when the plant is dried or boiled. Ranunculus glaberrimus is among the earliest blooming wildflowers in its range. There are about 40 species of Centrosema worldwide; 3 are found in the continental United States.

There are also 2 additional Centrosema species found in Puerto Rico; 1 of those is also in the U. Virgin Islands. It is primarily a plant of the southeastern U. It is Endangered in New Jersey. Since this is the only Centrosema species in most of its range, and it is similar to Clitoria mariana , is it most confused with that species. These plants share the trait of having the standard lower than the other petals; most legumes have the standard held above the other petals.

While there are 17 species in the Cephalanthus genus worldwide, there are only two species of Buttonbush found in the United States. Mexican Buttonbush, Cephalanthus salicifolius is native to a couple of the southernmost counties in Texas, the only state in the U. The species presented here, Common Buttonbush - Cephalanthus occidentalis - is found throughout the eastern United States and Canada, as far west as Nebraska and Texas, and is also found in Arizona and California. I find it curious that it makes the jump from Texas to Arizona, but is apparently not found in New Mexico, which lies between those two states.

Some authorities recognize two varieties, with the western variety known as California Buttonbush. Common Buttonbush is a wetland shrub or small tree which can grow to nearly 10 feet tall along the banks of streams, ponds, lakes, marshes, and in other wetland areas. The bark contains a poison that will cause vomiting, paralysis, and convulsions if eaten.

There are 8 species of Diodia - Buttonweed - found in the United States, although only four of these are found in the "states proper" - the other 4 species are found in the U. Territories of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. While this plant is officially listed as Threatened or Endangered in Indiana and New Jersey, it also is considered a weed by some authorities, and I can attest to its weediness, with the example here photographed in an area it had taken over in a small garden patch we had.

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  6. It is noteworthy, however, that it was subsequently pushed out by the much more aggressive non-native invasive Ground Ivy Glechoma hederacea. Virginia Buttonweed is a branching, sprawling plant with opposite leaves. Diodia teres is a wildflower many consider to be a weed. While it can be a creeping plant with reclining stems, in my experience it is more likely to be upright than its equally invasive cousin, Virginia Buttonweed D.

    The genus Clinopodium is in flux; depending on whether you, as many authorities do, include various other genera in the Mint family such as Satureja Satureja glabella var. The genus has member species around the globe, and even narrowly circumscribed the several species found in the United States are spread across the nation, although most species individually have relatively narrow distribution.

    Clinopodium glabellum Glade Savory is one of those narrowly distributed species, a small plant found in limestone glades in only three states - a couple of counties in Alabama, a several counties in central Tennessee, and a few counties in northern Kentucky. Although the USDA map to the right shows it in Virginia, most authoritative sources believe those reports are due to common confusion with the very similar and much more widely distributed Clinopodium arkansanum Arkansas Calamint. In spite of the beauty of its blossom, the California Poppy is considered to be a weed by many people.

    Native to North America, scattered wild populations of this plant are found in most states. However, since it was first collected on a Russian exploratory voyage to the west coast of North America in the early 19th century, it is likely that most of the eastern populations are the result of seeds and plants brought back from the west, rather than from native populations in those areas.

    The California Poppy is the state flower of California. Tribulus is a small genus of around 25 species of the tropics and subtropics, although the exact number is not determined with some authorities recognizing only 7 with up to 70 species and subspecies being under review. There is some dispute as to whether any Tribulus species are native to the Americas, and especially the United States, but the University of Hawaii lists Tribulus cistoides as indigenous to the Hawaiian Islands, and it seems likely that other species are native to the tropics of North America.

    No species are native to the continental United States, but one other species has also been introduced and survives in parts of the country. Tribulus terrestris is widely spread throughout the United States, especially in the drier western states, and may be the most widely distributed Tribulus species in the world.

    This may be partly due to its use as a dietary supplement reported to increase testosterone levels. It is a problem weed in parts of the country. While Tribulus cistoides may be native to Hawaii, it is introduced and has relatively small distribution in the rest of the country, being found only in a few southeastern states, with the widest distribution in Florida - it is primarily a tropical species.

    According to the University of Florida Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants Tribulus cistoides is used medicinally for headaches, nervous disorders, and constipation. It grows in rich, shady, moist coves. The blooming period lasts for several weeks in April and May. Help pages. Prothero Michael J. Benton Richard Fortey View All. Go to British Wildlife. Conservation Land Management. Go to Conservation Land Management.

    Series: Bur Oak Guides. By: Jon Farrar Author. Publisher: University of Iowa Press. Click to have a closer look. Select version. About this book Customer reviews Related titles.

    Summer Flowers in Nebraska

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